The gender wage gap and wage discrimination continue to be hot topics in the news, especially as more studies and reports confirm that men still make more than women. In fact, Time reports that a new wage gap report from the Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce shows that at every educational level, women have to earn an additional degree in order to attain average salaries that align with men’s. For example, women with an associate’s degree earn an average salary of $43,000, while men with a high school diploma earn $47,000. The report also finds that nearly three-quarters of Americans who earn more than $100,000 are men.
While some progress has been made in closing the gender wage gap recently, the gap remains even while women earn more college degrees at every level than men. Some researchers also point out that individual choices impact the gap; however, the Georgetown CEW report confirms wage discrimination still exists, as women earn $0.92 for every dollar earned by men for the same job. To help you learn more about and address the gender wage gap and wage discrimination, we have rounded up advice, articles, data and charts, and reports from national organizations, financial institutions, respected media outlets, authorities in gender studies, and other experts on the subject. We also have categorized them and listed them in alphabetical order by title to help you find the information that will be most useful to you; thus, our 50 articles and resources on the gender wage gap and wage discrimination are not ranked or rated in any way.
- Gender Wage Gap Advice
- Articles on the Gender Wage Gap & Wage Discrimination
- Data and Charts
- Gender Wage Gap Reports
Gender Wage Gap Advice
1. 3 Ways to Overcome the Gender Pay Gap
U.S. News & World Report contributor Robin Madell considers three steps throughout the year to help women’s salaries reach the same level of men’s in this money-based advice piece. Madell points out that Equal Pay Day fell on April 4, 2017, which signifies the date that women’s salaries finally catch up to men’s for work completed in the prior calendar year; yet, women of color have to work for several more months “before achieving symbolic parity with men’s annual earnings.” She offers three solutions for women who want to close the gap by taking steps to erode the personal gap they face in their career.
Three key tips from 3 Ways to Overcome the Gender Pay Gap:
- Follow and support equal pay legislation
- Keep up with equal pay research
- Know your worth and how to negotiate for it
2. 5 Ways to Close the Gender Pay Gap
Catalyst, a global nonprofit, works with some of the world’s most powerful CEOs and leading companies to help build workplaces that work for women. Their advice reminds readers that immediate action is necessary to deal with the issue and shares a few solutions, along with some helpful tips for taking steps to close the pay gap now.
Three key tips from 5 Ways to Close the Gender Pay Gap:
- Conduct an internal pay-equity audit and analysis to ensure your organization does not have a gender pay gap
- Establish a “no negotiations” policy for salaries
- Ensure your recruitment, promotion, and talent-development systems are void of gender bias
3. 5 Ways to Fix the Gender Pay Gap
A human capital media publication, Talent Economy covers the critical, emerging role talent plays in the modern economy. Senior editor Lauren Dixon begins her piece by citing the U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee’s claim that women earn 79 cents to every dollar earned by a man and acknowledging that most factors contributing to the gender pay gap are not intentionally discriminatory. She then explains that motherhood impacts the pay discrepancy and offers five ways for business leaders to close the gap.
Three key tips from 5 Ways to Fix the Gender Pay Gap:
- Provide paid leave for mothers and subsidized or on-site childcare
- Improve the culture around flex work policies so women feel more comfortable taking advantage of paid leave
- Use transparency around pay as a tactic for pay equity
4. AAUW Issues: Gender Pay Gap
The American Association of University Women (AAUW) has been empowering girls and women since 1881. The AAUW “believes that pay equity and equal opportunity are a matter of simple fairness.” As such, the organization is a leader in fighting to end wage discrimination. In this gender pay gap piece, the AAUW cites several findings that prove the existence of the gap and puts forth several suggestions for closing it.
Three key tips from AAUW Issues: Gender Pay Gap:
- The executive branch must advance regulations and take action to ensure adequate enforcement of civil rights through funding and enforcement agencies
- Companies need to sign on to the Equal Pay Pledge and join the Employers for Pay Equity Consortium
- Congressional action must address the pay disparity
5. The Best Way to Eliminate the Gender Pay Gap? Ban Salary Negotiations
The Washington Post’s award-winning journalists have covered Washington, DC, and the world since 1877. Laura J. Kray, the Warren E. and Carol Spieker Professor of Leadership at the University of California’s Berkeley-Haas School of Business, asserts that banning salary negotiations is the best way to close the gender pay gap in her Washington Post piece. She tells the story of Ellen Pap, who banned salary negotiation at Reddit, after losing gender discrimination suit against her former employer.
Three key tips from The Best Way to Eliminate the Gender Pay Gap? Ban Salary Negotiations:
- Companies must be transparent about pay by revealing the salaries of all their employees
- No-negotiation policies attract top talent
- No-negotiation policies translate to employers paying based on a job’s market value instead of on subjective individual characteristics
6. A Definitive Strategy To Eliminate the Gender Pay Gap
Fast Company is a business media brand inspiring readers to think beyond traditional boundaries and create the future of business. Lydia Dishman’s Fast Company peace showcases four companies that adopted radical transparency to eliminate the gender wage gap: SumAll, Buffer, Figure53, and Xactly.
Three key tips from A Definitive Strategy To Eliminate the Gender Pay Gap:
- Transparent companies have better retention rates because employees do not leave due to feeling as though someone lied about salaries
- Publish salaries and the formulas used to calculate every team member’s salary
- Pay based on experience rather than on gender, and for jobs involving more complex responsibilities, factor in education and professional background
7. Equal Pay Day: A wage gap fact check
The Guardian focuses on the facts and gives people information they can trust. Mona Chalabi’s article for The Guardian points out that the gender wage gap differs based on location, age, educational status, and race or ethnicity. She also offers advice for helping people find the true wage gap numbers across gender and race groups in the U.S.
Three key tips from Equal Pay Day: A wage gap fact check:
- Look for a reputable source for wage gap information, such as the Census Bureau
- Read all the fine print to understand exactly what the charts and figures represent
- Determine whether the wage gap statistics you use accurately reflect all groups
8. Four Fixes to End the Gender Pay Gap That Might Actually Work
A daily internet magazine, Slate is a general-interest publication offering analysis and commentary on a variety of topics. Haley Swenson’s Slate article offers four suggestions for putting an end to wage discrimination that do not require federal policy. Swenson highlights four areas that those determined to close the gap should focus on: policies at the state level, local regulations, low-wage workers in the care sector, and employers going beyond requirements to create fair, accommodating workplaces.
Three key points from Four Fixes to End the Gender Pay Gap That Might Actually Work:
- States need to get on board with fair pay to attract businesses and workers who will be taxpayers
- Test innovative pay equity policies at the local level
- Raise the wages of women in typically low-paying occupations, such as those in the care sector
9. How Do We Close the Wage Gap in the U.S.?
The Atlantic covers politics, culture, business, science, technology, health, education, global affairs, and much more. Bourree Lam’s article acknowledges that the gender pay gap is narrowing, yet remains 2.5 times the size of other industrialized countries. The article is part of the A&Q series, that throws the classic Q&A format on its head; as such, it explores questions to some of the most common proposals for creating pay equity.
Three key tips from How Do We Close the Wage Gap in the U.S.?:
- Legislating equal pay has failed because it forces female employees to pursue lawsuits and prove they ahi been discriminated against
- Encouraging women into higher paying professions has failed because women continue to be paid less than male colleagues in those professions
- Companies need to implement policies, like paid family leave and supported childcare, empowering women to be moms and workers while employers need to shift their thinking and understand that mothers are valuable employees
10. Pay Equity: Preventing Wage Discrimination
Huntersure LLC is a full-service managing general agency focusing on insurance program administration for professional liability products. In this post, they explore pay equity and wage discrimination and offer suggestions for preventing wage discrimination, ensuring pay equity, and mitigating legal liabilities.
Three key tips from Pay Equity: Preventing Wage Discrimination:
- Gain a thorough understanding of the Equal Pay Act (EPA) and realize that jobs do not need to be identical for equal pay to be required; instead, they need to be substantially equal regarding skill, effort, job responsibility, and working conditions
- Train management and supervisors to grant raises and salaries objectively based on skills and performance rather than gender
- Adopt a written anti-wage discrimination policy or equal employment opportunity policy to ban unequal pay and unwarranted raises or bonuses
11. See What Your State is Doing to Close the Gender Wage Gap
NBC News has been a leading source of global news and information for 75 years. Avalon Zoppo and Sam Petulla examine how states are approaching the gender wage gap in their NBC News article, now that the federal government has reversed some protections to protect working women.
Three key tips from See What Your State is Doing to Close the Gender Wage Gap:
- State legislatures can take the lead on closing the gender wage gap – look to California, Louisiana, North Dakota, and Utah for examples
- States have the power to expand pay equity measures and close federal loopholes
- States should enact legislation forbidding employers from asking about salary history
12. To Help Shrink Gender Wage Gap, Add Female Managers
Fairygodboss centers on improving the workplace for women using crowdsourced reviews, career advice, interview tips, and job search strategies. Samantha Samel’s article details a report that found American women consistently sacrifice pay and career advancement when they become mothers. Samel also acknowledges that equal pay for equal work is unlikely to succeed because the gender wage gap is multi-faceted and due, in part, to the fact that management positions are experiencing a widening gap.
Three key tips from To Help Shrink Gender Wage Gap, Add Female Managers:
- Give women equal access to the highest-paying jobs
- Fields dominated by women also need to empower women to obtain managerial positions
- Implement blind screenings for management positions and adjust HR and compensation policies to ensure pay equity
Articles on the Gender Wage Gap & Wage Discrimination
13. 8 Wage Gap Statistics To Shut Down Any Haters
Bustle is “for and by women who are moving forward as fast as you are.” Natasha Guzman’s Bustle article acknowledges that there are skeptics who claim the wage gap is a myth. To combat the myth, Guzman shares eight statistics.
Three key points from 8 Wage Gap Statistics To Shut Down Any Haters:
- The gender wage gap affects nearly every field; women have hundreds of different types of jobs and nearly all of them earn less than men in the same fields
- Despite more education, women earn less than men holding the same degrees
- Even in fields dominated by women, men make more than women
14. Closing the Gender Pay Gap Could Have Big Economic Benefits
CNBC, the recognized world leader in business news, provides real-time financial market coverage and business information to hundreds of millions of homes around the globe. Elizabeth Schulze explores the economic benefits that could result from a closed gender pay gap in her CNBC article.
Three key points from Closing the Gender Pay Gap Could Have Big Economic Benefits:
- There has not been much substantial progress in closing the wage gap in the last 10 years
- While varying occupations between men and women and motherhood do contribute to the wage gap, many studies find that it is virtually impossible to explain the majority of the gap
- The poverty rate of working women could be cut in half if women were paid as much as men
15. Detailed Data May Not be Enough to Close Gender Pay Gap
An internationally acclaimed producer and distributor of noncommercial news, talk, and entertainment programming, NPR works to create a more informed public. Yuki Noguchi’s NPR article acknowledges there are pay gaps practically across the board, yet the gap in computer engineering is 28%.
Three key points from Detailed Data May Not be Enough to Close Gender Pay Gap:
- Companies are investigating whether they contribute to the pay gap, especially because workers demand more transparency from employers
- Companies need to know how to calculate the gender pay gap; yet, there is no uniform algorithm for all companies to use
- Companies that make adjustments to close the gap and share the reason for increasing salaries are thriving
16. Don’t Buy Into the Gender Pay Gap Myth
Forbes.com is the number one business news source ion the world; as such, it is the online destination for the world’s business leaders. Forbes contributor Karin Agness Lips’ article reflects on the time she spent speaking to a group of undergraduate women at Harvard and their belief that they will make less than men. Lips asserts that the gender pay gap is a myth and cites that many pay gap statistics do not account for education, experience, and hours worked.
Three key points from Don’t Buy Into the Gender Pay Gap Myth:
- Various groups manipulate statistics differently
- “Using the statistic that women make 78 cents on the dollar as evidence of rampant discrimination has been debunked over and over again”
- Fruitful discussions of the gender wage gap should account for the choices women and men make in relation to their education, years of experience, and hours worked
17. Equal Pay For Equal Work: The Gender Wage Gap By The Numbers
Forbes staff writer Clare O’Connor writes about women entrepreneurs, workplace equality, and diversity in Silicon Valley and the tech world. Her article recounts the day that President Obama announced the dedication of a national monument to women’s equity and marks Equal Pay Day 2016. Yet, she also cites facts and figures from the Joint Economic Committee showing that pay equity is not yet a reality in the United States.
Three key points from Equal Pay For Equal Work: The Gender Wage Gap By The Numbers:
- Compared to white men, white women make 79 cents on the collar, African American women make 60 cents on the dollar, and Latina women make 55 cents on the dollar
- The gender wage gap widens as women get older; for example, women between 18 and 24 earn 12% less than their male colleagues, but women over 35 earn 24% less than their male colleagues
- On average, a woman with a graduate degree earns $5,000 less than an average man with a bachelor’s degree
18. Gap Analysis: What Equal Pay Day Gets Wrong
PayScale delivers compensation data to individuals and employers through online tools and software. Their article asserts that women earning 76 cents for every dollar earned by men does not tell the entire story because that statistic considers the median salary for all men and women without accounting for the type of job or seniority of the worker.
Three key points from Gap Analysis: What Equal Pay Day Gets Wrong:
- Women are less likely than men to hold upper-level, high-paying jobs
- When comparing men and women holding the same jobs, the wage gap between median salaries is closer; however, when controlling for job title, level, and other wage impacts, women make 98 cents for every dollar earned by men
- The uncontrolled and controlled gender wage gaps shrank in 2016 when compared to 2015, so some progress is being made
19. The Gender Pay Gap
The Economist shares news and analysis with a global perspective. This article from The Economist examines why the gender wage gap exists even though equal pay laws have been in place for decades.
Three key points from The Gender Pay Gap:
- The pay gap between men and women in “rich countries” has ceased narrowing in large part due to the penalty women pay for becoming mothers
- There are more women in lower-paid positions than men, and women have far fewer opportunities for being promoted
- The gap would shrink if more men moved into female-dominated jobs and more women moved into male-dominated jobs; yet, workplace gender integration hit a wall approximately 10 years ago
20. The Gender Pay Gap for Women Doctors is Big – and Getting Worse
CNNMoney delivers the money news that matters most. Parija Kavilanz’s CNNMoney article not only acknowledges the gender wage gap exists for doctors but goes one step further to assert that it is worsening. In fact, women doctors earn an average of $105,000, or 27.7%, less a year than their male peers.
Three key points from The Gender Pay Gap for Women Doctors is Big – and Getting Worse:
- Despite the fact that physician compensation rises faster than the national wage growth, the gender wage gap remains
- A study found that pay inequity exists across all 40 medical specialties and 50 metropolitan areas
- Transparency could help women doctors negotiate for better wages
21. The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood
The Upshot provides analytical journalism in words and graphics from The New York Times. Claire Cain Miller’s article for The Upshot points to motherhood as being the main culprit behind the gender wage gap, especially now that research shows the gap widens as women age.
Three key points from The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood:
- Unmarried women who do not have children earn wages much closer to men’s
- Married women without children also earn less since they are more apt to give up career opportunities to live close to their husbands’ jobs
- Employers may not give married women more responsibility because “they assume they’ll have babies and take time off”
22. The Gender Pay Gap Is Still 20% – But Millennial Women are Closing in on Men
Shawn M. Carter is an award-winning reporter covering money for CNBC. His gender pay gap article reports that one group of women is making the most progress in closing the gap: millennials. The reason that millennial women are closer to reaching pay equity could be that they are earning degrees and outpacing men in higher education.
Three key points from The Gender Pay Gap Is Still 20% – But Millennial Women are Closing in on Men:
- Millennial men “are generally in better financial standing than women,” but the wage gap is narrowing as women become better educated
- Compared with the median hourly earnings of 25- to 34-year-old men, the earnings for women of the same ages have increased from 67% – 90% between 1980 and 2015
- Millennial women have greater fiscal responsibility than young men; they prioritize paying student loans, reducing credit card debt, and increasing their savings account contributions
23. How Much Progress Have We Made Since Women Went On Strike In 1970?
FiveThirtyEight covers politics, economics, science, life, and sports. Kathryn Casteel and Kara Chin examine how much progress women have made since the strikes of 1970 in this FiveThirtyEight article, in light of the Women’s March on Washington and A Day Without a Woman.
Three key points from How Much Progress Have We Made Since Women Went On Strike In 1970?:
- 47% of the labor force is comprised of women today, and in industries such as health services and education, women make up more than half of all employees
- Women remain underrepresented in executive suites and in the best-paying professions
- Progress in narrowing the gender wage gap has stalled in recent years, and the United States continue to lag behind other countries in closing it
24. It’s 2016, and Women Still Make Less for Doing the Same Work as Men
Danielle Paquette’s Washington Post article examines why women continue to earn less even though they hold the same roles as men. Despite the fact that federal law prohibits pay discrimination, the gender wage gap persists and has not progressed much since the 1990s.
Three key points from It’s 2016, and Women Still Make Less for Doing the Same Work as Men:
- Career decisions may account for roughly half the gap when considering labor market experience
- A survey of working parents finds that both men and women value flexible schedules and time with family
- Women carry more of the burden at home, which may be why American mothers make an average of $40,000 compared to $56,999 made by fathers
25. Men Still Earn More Than Women with the Same Jobs
Jessica Dickler is a personal finance reporter for CNBC. In this article, she closely examines why men continue to earn more than women, despite holding the same job. Dickler also acknowledges that the pay disparity has improved, yet it persists to the point that workers look for other jobs.
Three key points from Men Still Earn More Than Women with the Same Jobs:
- When scouting for job titles and similar education and experience, men still earn 2.4% more than women on average
- The gender wage gap negatively impacts employee retention rates
- The pay gap may also be attributed to the fact art men are 41% more likely to take a management role and are nearly 50% more likely to take an executive position later in their careers
26. No, The Gender Pay Gap Isn’t A Myth — And Here’s Why
The Huffington Post shares the latest news and opinions on politics, entertainment, life, and more. Catherine Pearson’s HuffPost article tackles the notion that the gender pay gap is a myth and shares facts and figures supporting the notion that women make less than men.
Three key points from No, The Gender Pay Gap Isn’t A Myth — And Here’s Why:
- Arguing that life choices made by women account for the gender wage gap is an oversimplification; many women are forced out of the workforce because they cannot afford childcare or find a full-time job with flexibility
- 30% of Americans believe women should stay home full-time to care for children; biases such as this affect the workplace and the culture
- Women of color are far less likely to have access to paid sick and family leave and flexible work schedules, which impacts the wage gap
27. Pay Equity & Discrimination
The Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) is informing policy, inspiring change, and improving lives. In Pay Equity & Discrimination, the IWPR briefly breaks down the facts and figures about wage discrimination.
Three key points from Pay Equity & Discrimination:
- Despite the fact that women earn more undergraduate and graduate degrees than men, they earn less than men
- On average, women earn less than men in nearly every occupation
- “Outright discrimination in pay, hiring, or promotions continues to be a significant feature of working life”
28. Proposals Aim To Combat Discrimination Based On Salary History
Yuki Noguchi’s NPR article focuses on wage discrimination based on salary history. In 2017, 25 states and the District of Columbia considered measures to bar employers from asking potential hire about their prior salary; these measures can narrow the wage gap for women and minorities.
Three key points from Proposals Aim To Combat Discrimination Based On Salary History:
- Women who are given salaries based on previous pay are stuck in a cycle of low pay that men rarely face
- Women make 7% less than men one year after college even with similar education, college major, occupation, industry, and hours worked
- Pay disparity is less severe when unions or government rules set salaries
29. The Shocking Profession with the Biggest Gender Wage Gap
Published by Dow Jones & Company, MarketWatch.com tracks the pulse of markets and offers business news, personal finance information, real-time commentary, and investment tools and data. Quentin Fottrell’s MarketWatch article acknowledges that the gender wage gap is most significant for Hispanic and black women. However, the focus of the article is on the fact that it is women personal financial advisors with the widest pay gap.
Three key points from The Shocking Profession with the Biggest Gender Wage Gap:
- Women personal financial advisors make 56.4$ of men in the same job
- The reason for the wide wage gap may be that male clients prefer male advisors
- 4.6 million women work in occupations with poverty-level wages, while only 1.5 million men do so
30. Starbucks Eliminates Gender Pay Gap in U.S. Workforce, Aims To Do the Same Worldwide
GeekWire offers tech news and commentary on companies, such as Microsoft and Apple, and the internet. Clare McGrane’s GeekWire article takes a close look at how Starbucks addressed the gender pay gap among its American workforce and plans to expand its solution around the world.
Three key points from Starbucks Eliminates Gender Pay Gap in U.S. Workforce, Aims To Do the Same Worldwide:
- Starbucks worked to achieve pay equity among genders and minority groups
- Companies that achieve 100% pay equity, like Starbucks, can go public with their announcement to improve employee retention and public relations
- Companies can help one another close the gender pay gap
31. A Stunning Chart Shows the True Cause of the Gender Wage Gap
A pioneer in explanatory journalism, Vox is on a mission to help people understand the news and the world at large. Sarah Kliff’s article makes the concept of gender pay inequity easy to understand, as she points to the child care penalty as being the main culprit for the wage gap.
Three key points from A Stunning Chart Shows the True Cause of the Gender Wage Gap:
- The gender wage gap exists in countries around the world; in fact, “you won’t find a country where men and women have equal earnings”
- People try to explain the gender wage gap by blaming gender discrimination or citing women’s choice as being the main cause
- A Princeton University study reveals a substantial decrease in women’s earnings after their first child is born, while men do not have a comparable salary drop
32. What Gender Pay-Gap Statistics Aren’t Capturing
Bourree Lam’s The Atlantic article asserts that women are more likely to opt for lower-paying jobs, which can account for the gender wage gap. However, cultural biases impact women’s decisions, and those cultural biases may have a larger impact on wage discrimination than we originally thought.
Three key points from What Gender Pay-Gap Statistics Aren’t Capturing:
- After adjusting for factors such as geography, experience, job titles, and other variables, a statistically significant pay gap exists
- There is not one simple explanation for the gender pay gap
- Cultural expectations and messages can influence American women to take lower-paying jobs that are more flexible
33. While the World Celebrates Progress on International Women’s Day, the Gender Pay Gap is Only Getting Bigger
Business Insider is a fast-growing site offering deep financial, media, and tech insights. Rachel Gillett’s Business Insider article examines why equal pay for equal work is not the answer to the gender wage gap.
Three key points from While the World Celebrates Progress on International Women’s Day, the Gender Pay Gap is Only Getting Bigger:
- Approaching flexible work differently is a solution to gender wage gap
- “The global gender pay gap is widening, and at the rate things are going, WEF predicts the economic gap between men and women won’t be closed for another 217 years”
- In nearly every occupation, women earn less than men
34. Why Women Are No Longer Catching Up To Men On Pay
Ben Casselman is a senior editor and the chief economics writer for FiveThirtyEight. In this article, he considers the reason that women seem to have stalled in their quest for pay equity. It’s worth noting that the article is part of the In Real Terms column, which analyzes the week in economic news.
Three key points from Why Women Are No Longer Catching Up To Men On Pay:
- The gender wage gap narrowed significantly between 1964 and 2004, but the progress stalled between 2004 and 2014, when women earned an improvement of only two cents an hour to arrive at earning 79 cents for every dollar a man earned
- Women also show “five decades of remarkable but slowing change” in terms of their rate of employment, the likelihood they’ll work in a male-dominated field, and the rate at which they run large companies
- Women’s progress toward pay equity may have stalled because of cultural norms, implicit biases, individual preferences, and subtler forms of discrimination that are nearly impossible to change or measure
Data and Charts
35. 5 Charts Show How Much More Men Make Than Women
Sonam Sheth and Skye Gould’s Business Insider article presents five charts demonstrating the existence of the gender wage gap. In fact, they “illustrate the significant pay discrepancies between men and women based on education, race, age, geographical location, and more.”
Three key facts from 5 Charts Show How Much More Men Make Than Women:
- The gender wage gap varies greatly depending on the state
- Women of color experience the larges pay gap when compared to white men
- Women over the age of 65 earn less across all income sources when compared to men, including social security, earnings, and pensions
36. 5 Things to Know About the Gender Pay Gap
Kathryn Vasel is a personal finance reporter for CNNMoney, covering real estate, family life, and consumer news. Her article marks Equal Pay Day and features five key facts about the gender wage gap, including that women typically earn about 80 cents for every dollar earned by men.
Three key facts from 5 Things to Know About the Gender Pay Gap:
- The pay gap results in a loss of about $10,470 in median earnings each year for women
- Asian women are narrowing the wage gap better than African American and Hispanic women workers; they make 85 cents for every dollar a white, non-Hispanic man makes
- The gender pay gap tends to be larger among higher-paying jobs
37. The Narrowing, But Persistent, Gender Gap in Pay
Anna Brown and Eileen Patten’s FactTank data blog post examines the persistent gender pay gap. In 2015, women earned 83% of what men earned when considering median hourly earnings of full-time and part-time American workers. Specifically, their data and charts demonstrate that some groups are closing the gap.
Three key facts from The Narrowing, But Persistent, Gender Gap in Pay:
- In 2015, it took an extra 44 days of work for women to earn equal pay
- The gender pay gap is closing among young adults; for adults ages 25-34, the 2015 wage gap was smaller, as women earned 90 cents for every dollar a man earned in this age group
- Women have obtained higher-paying jobs traditionally dominated by men, but women as a whole are overrepresented in lower-paying occupations, which likely contributes to the gender wage gap
38. Racial, Gender Wage Gaps Persist in U.S. Despite Some Progress
Pew Research Center delivers nonpartisan, non-advocacy data and analysis on the issues, attitudes, and trends that shape the world. Eileen Patten’s Pew Research Center FactTank data blog post presents data and charts demonstrating how the gender wage gap and wage discrimination play out in the United States, including the ways in which gender, race, and ethnicity groups lag behind white men’s median hourly earnings.
Three key facts from Racial, Gender Wage Gaps Persist in U.S. Despite Some Progress:
- All groups except Asian men lag behind white men when it comes to median hourly earnings
- In 2015, blacks earned 75% as much as white men in median hourly earnings, while women earned 83% as much as men
- The hourly earnings of Asian women ($18) and white women ($17) are higher than those of black women ($13) and Hispanic women ($12) and higher than those of black men ($15) and Hispanic men ($14)
39. Six Key Facts about the Gender Pay Gap
Our World in Data visualizes the long-term changes taking place around the globe. Esteban Ortiz-Ospina’s Our World in Data blog post makes use of Sandra Tzvetkova’s research contributions to provide “an empirical overview of the gender pay gap across countries and over time.” The data highlights six key facts regarding the gap.
Three key facts from Six Key Facts about the Gender Pay Gap:
- The gender pay gap demonstrates inequality but not necessarily discrimination
- Most countries have a substantial gender pay gap
- In most countries with available data, the gender pay gap has narrowed during the past couple of decades
40. States Not Waiting To Close Gender Wage Gap
NPR’s Jennifer Ludden examines the state-by-state map of the gender wage gap in the United States, as created by Emily Martin. The map reveals the smallest wage gap is in Washington, D.C. (women earn nearly 90% of what men do), and the largest gap is in Louisiana (women earn 65% of what men do).
Three key facts from States Not Waiting To Close Gender Wage Gap:
- Overall, women earn 79 cents for every dollar earned by men nationwide
- Discrimination plays a role in the gender pay gap, as social science studies show that both male and female supervisors recommend lower salaries for women, even if they have the same qualifications as men
- States aren’t waiting for Congress to solve pay equity; a number of them have passed equal pay lows in recent years, and dozens more are introducing their own proposals
41. Why is There a Gender Pay Gap?
Esteban Ortiz-Ospina’s Our World in Data blog post, with research contributions from Sandra Tzvetkova, explores the reasons for the gender pay gap. The post also includes several charts and graphs to illustrate those reasons as well as the reason that significant gaps remain.
Three key facts from Why is There a Gender Pay Gap?:
- The gap is narrowing, in part, because more women are pursuing higher education; however, education does not explain the remaining gap in rich countries
- In the United States, education and experience are far less important when considering gender differences in wages over time; occupation and industry have more of an impact on the gap today
- There is a link between the gender pay gap and job flexibility; women working more flexible jobs earn less per hour than men, even when the total number of hours worked is equal
Gender Wage Gap Reports
42. America’s Women and the Wage Gap
The National Partnership for Women & Families promotes fairness in the workplace, access to quality and affordable health care, and policies that help women and men meet the demands of work and family. Their April 2017 fact sheet examines the gender wage gap across various groups and states and the impacts of the gap for American women.
Three key facts from America’s Women and the Wage Gap:
- In 95% of the country’s congressional districts, the median yearly pay for full-time working women is less than the median yearly pay for men
- On average, women working full time in the U.S. lose a combined total of more than $840 billion every year due to the wage gap
- Eliminating the gender wage gap, on average, would give a working woman enough money for approximately 15 months of child care, 1.2 additional years of tuition and fees for a four-year public university, 78 more weeks of food for her family, and seven more months of mortgage and utilities payments
43. Black-White Wage Gaps Expand with Rising Wage Inequality
The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) is an independent, nonprofit think tank researching the impact of economic trends and policies on working Americans. Valerie Wilson and William M. Rodgers III present an extensive report on the black-white wage gaps that exist today; in fact, the pay disparity is more substantial today than it was in 1979.
Three key facts from Black-White Wage Gaps Expand with Rising Wage Inequality:
- Black men make 22% less than white men with the same education, experience, metro status, and region of residence, while black women make 34.2% less
- Black women earn 11.7% less than their white female colleagues
- The black-white pay gap has been most detrimental to young black women with 0-10 years of experience
44. Breaking Down the Gender Wage Gap
The United States Department of Labor strives to strengthen America’s workforce. Their report, Breaking Down the Gender Wage Gap, asserts that the wage gap is closing but progress has stalled in the past decade. The report also details some of the factors that contribute to pay disparity between American men and women.
Three key facts from Breaking Down the Gender Wage Gap:
- In recent decades, women have achieved greater educational levels than men, which may account for the narrowing gender wage gap
- Women’s labor workforce participation rate is 10% higher than in 1975, but it peaked in 199 when approximately 60% of women were in the labor force
- The gender wage gap persists, in part, because of gender segregation across occupations and women’s unpaid work,
45. Gender Pay Inequality: Consequences for Women, Families and the Economy
The United States Joint Economic Committee (JEC) was formed when Congress passed the Employment Act of 1946, which established the JEC as one of two advisory panels. The primary task of the JEC is to review economic conditions and to recommend improvements in economic policy. In April 2016, the JEC published this report, which examines the gender pay gap, disparities by race, age, and region, the total costs of gender pay inequality, factors contributing to the gap, international comparisons, and the status of Equal Pay for Equal Work.
Three key facts from Gender Pay Inequality: Consequences for Women, Families and the Economy:
- A woman working full time and year-round earns $10,800 less each year than a man, based on median annual earnings
- The gender pay gap has narrowed, but it will not close until 2059 if it continues at the current rate of change
- As much as 40% of the pay gap may be attributed to discrimination
46. Here are the Facts Behind that ’79 Cent’ Pay Gap Factoid
Glenn Kessler presents a fact-checking report in the Washington Post, which takes aim at the 79 cent pay gap put forth by the Joint Economic Committee and various Democrats. Kessler contends that their is a wage gap but points to different life choices among men and women as making it nearly impossible to make simple comparisons like the 79 cent pay gap.
Three key facts from Here are the Facts Behind that ’79 Cent’ Pay Gap Factoid:
- The 79 cent pay gap may oversimplify the gender wage gap because it considers median earnings
- The Labor Department’s Bureau of Labor Statistics reveals the gap is 17 cents when considering weekly wages and 15 cents when considering hourly wages
- Critics content the wage gap is affected by several factors including work experience and the number of part-time weeks worked by women
47. The Gender Pay Gap – Myth vs. Fact
The National Organization for Women (NOW) is on a mission to take action through grassroots activism to promote feminist ideals, lead societal change, eliminate discrimination, and achieve and protect the equal rights of all women and girls in all aspects of life. Their report on the gender pay gap highlights various assertions that they point to as being myths about the gap and debunks them using research and statistics.
Three key facts from The Gender Pay Gap – Myth vs. Fact:
- The United Nations reported that the worldwide age gap will take approximately 70 yeas to close at its current rate
- Between 1985-1994, the gap closed by 8.1%; from 1995 – 2004, the gap closed by 4.9%; from 2005-2014, the gap closed by 1.5% – the rate is stalling and very few gains are being made
- Studies show that male employers are less likely to hire women who negotiate salary because they perceive these women as “demanding”
48. The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap
The AAUW’s report on the gender pay gap addresses the most common questions about pay disparity and looks beyond the reported 80% statistic. Specifically, the report examines the pay gap from many angles, including how it affects women of various ages, races, and education levels, and what individuals can do to close it.
Three key facts from The Simple Truth about the Gender Pay Gap:
- The pay gap seems unlikely to close on its own; the rate of change between 1960 and 2016 showed pay equity could be achieved by 2059, but slowed progress has pushed that date until 2119
- The pay gap can be calculated nationally and by state
- The pay gap varies for different racial groups, and the gap is largest for Hispanic women, who made 54% of what white men were paid in 2016
49. The Wage Gap: The Who, How, Why, and What to Do
The National Women’s Law Center has been expanding the possibilities for women and girls since 1972. This report shows how the wage gap has become stagnant with little change since 2007 and details how pay disparity negatively impacts women and their children.
Three key facts from The Wage Gap: The Who, How, Why, and What to Do:
- Mothers working full-time, year-round, make only 71 cents for every dollar paid to fathers
- Women are affected by the wage gap as soon as they enter the labor force, but the gap widens as women age
- Women at all educational levels and in nearly every occupation experience a wage gap
50. Women’s Earnings and the Wage Gap
The Women’s Bureau of the U.S. Department of Labor shares this report to showcase women’s earnings and the wage gap. The issue brief highlights some of the most significant statistics and then takes a deep dive into the data, offering various measurements of the gender wage gap and explanations for it.
Three key facts from Women’s Earnings and the Wage Gap:
- There are a number of factors contributing to the gender wage gap, including women’s increased likelihood to reduce or leave paid work to become caregivers and the combination of occupational segregation and lower median pay in occupations dominated by women
- While the wage gap has narrowed, it persists and in fact has stalled in recent years
- In 2015, women accounted for more than 60% of workers paid at or below the federal minimum wage, and they were the majority of full-time workers earning less than $400 each week